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Spit Roaster | Cooking roast beef and pork on the 1200mm Spartan Hooded Spit Roaster

Spit Roasters | The Ultimate Guide

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Picture this, a succulent roast rotating slowly over a bed of hot coals, the tantalizing aroma filling the air as the flames lick at its surface. This captivating cooking spectacle is none other than spit roasting, a time-honoured cooking technique that has captured the hearts and palates of food enthusiasts throughout history.

In this comprehensive blog piece, we embark on a journey to explore the fascinating world of spit roasters. From their origins in ancient civilizations to their modern-day variations, we delve into the art and science behind these remarkable cooking contraptions. Join us as we uncover the various constructions, fuel sources, and types of spit roasters, while also providing insights into DIY alternatives for those with an itch for hands-on craftsmanship. For a quick and easy introduction to spit roasting you can read our spit roaster introduction guide here.

Spit Roaster | cooking a whole 17kg pig on the 1200mm hooded spartan spit

The Origins of Spit Roasting and Cooking over Fire and Coals

Tracing Spit Roasting back to Ancient Civilizations:

Spit roasting, also known as rotisserie cooking, can be traced back to ancient civilizations that relied on fire as their primary source of heat. The roots of this cooking technique can be found in multiple cultures across the globe, including the Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and Asian regions.

In ancient Greece, for example, spit roasting was a common practice, particularly during festive occasions and religious ceremonies. The Greeks would skewer whole animals, such as lambs or pigs, onto large spits and cook them slowly over an open flame. This tradition continues to this day in the form of Greek souvlaki.

Similarly, ancient Romans embraced spit roasting as a significant part of their culinary culture. They constructed elaborate cooking structures called "fornaces" or "coquus," which were equipped with rotating spits to roast various meats. These spits were turned manually or powered by water wheels.

Cultural and Historical Significance of Cooking over Open Flames

Cooking over open flames holds immense cultural and historical significance beyond its practical purpose of preparing food. Fire has been a symbol of warmth, protection, and communal gathering since ancient times. The act of cooking over fire was not just about sustenance but also served as a social and cultural ritual.

Throughout history, communal roasting and feasting around a fire brought communities together, fostering a sense of unity and shared experiences. The tantalizing aroma and visual spectacle of spit roasting created an ambiance of celebration and joy, making it an integral part of festivals, ceremonies, and gatherings.

Spit Roaster | Using an open fire and home made spit roaster to cook meat

Development of Techniques and Tools in Early Spit Roasting:

Early spit roasting required ingenuity and resourcefulness, leading to the development of various techniques and tools. Here are some notable advancements in early spit roasting:

  1. Spits and Skewers: The first spits were likely made from sturdy tree branches or sharpened wooden poles. Over time, metals like iron and steel replaced wood, allowing for longer and more durable spits. Skewers were used for smaller cuts of meat or kebabs.
  2. Rotating Mechanisms: Initially, spits were turned manually by hand. However, as civilizations progressed, mechanical mechanisms were introduced. Water wheels, pulleys, and even steam power were employed to rotate the spits, reducing the need for constant manual labour.
  3. Seasonings and Marinades: Early spit roasters discovered the art of enhancing flavours by using various seasonings and marinades. Herbs, spices, oils, and vinegar were commonly used to marinate meats, infusing them with delectable tastes and aromas.
  4. Basting Techniques: Cooks devised basting techniques to keep the meat moist and flavourful. Basting involved periodically brushing the meat with its own juices, marinades, or fats rendered during the cooking process, resulting in succulent and tender meat.

As time progressed, these techniques and tools evolved, influenced by cultural exchange, technological advancements, and culinary innovations, paving the way for the diverse range of spit roasters and techniques available today.

Different Constructions: Exploring the Evolution of Spit Roasters

Various Designs and Structures Employed in Spit Roaster Construction:

Over centuries of culinary innovation and technological advancements, spit roasters have undergone significant transformations. Let's explore some of the notable designs and structures employed in spit roaster construction:

  1. Tripod Spit Roasters: One of the earliest designs, tripod spit roasters, consists of three legs supporting a central vertical rod or spit. This simple yet effective design allows for stability and easy adjustment of the cooking height.

    Spit Roaster | Tripod steel framed spit roaster set up in outdoor area cooking chicken

  2. Box Spit Roasters: Box spit roasters feature a rectangular or box-shaped structure with a firebox at the bottom and a spit running through the centre. The enclosed design helps retain heat and control airflow, resulting in efficient and consistent cooking.
  3. Rotisserie Ovens: Modern spit roasters often take the form of rotisserie ovens. These enclosed units come equipped with an electric or gas-powered rotisserie system. Rotisserie ovens provide precise temperature control, even cooking, and convenient operation.
  4. Charcoal Grills with Rotisserie Attachments: Many charcoal grills now offer rotisserie attachments or dedicated rotisserie setups. These versatile designs allow for both traditional grilling and rotisserie cooking, providing flexibility for various culinary techniques.

Spit Roaster | Argentine Parrilla grill with spit roaster attachment

Differences between Traditional and Modern Spit Roaster Configurations:

Traditional spit roasters embody the essence of ancient cooking methods, while modern configurations offer enhanced convenience and versatility. Here are the key differences between the two:

  1. Traditional Spit Roasters: Traditional spit roasters typically feature manual rotating mechanisms. They rely on live fire, such as wood or charcoal, for heat and flavour. These setups often require manual adjustment of the spit's height and rotation speed, requiring more hands-on involvement from the cook.
  2. Modern Spit Roasters: Modern spit roasters, on the other hand, incorporate electric or gas-powered rotisserie systems for effortless rotation. They often come with temperature control options, allowing precise cooking. Additionally, some models have built-in features like temperature probes, timers, and even smartphone connectivity for monitoring and controlling the cooking process.

Spit Roaster | front view of the 1200mm spartan hooded with roast beef, pork and lamb

    Innovative Features and Enhancements Revolutionizing the Art of Spit Roasting:

    Advancements in spit roaster technology have brought forth innovative features and enhancements, making spit roasting more accessible and efficient. Here are some notable advancements:

    1. Motorized Rotisserie Systems: Electric or gas-powered motors have replaced manual labour, providing consistent and even rotation of the spit. This allows for hands-free operation, freeing up the cook to focus on other aspects of the meal preparation.
    2. Temperature Control: Modern spit roasters often incorporate thermostats or digital controls to maintain precise cooking temperatures. This ensures optimal cooking results and minimizes the risk of overcooking or undercooking the meat.
    3. Versatility and Multi-Spit Roaster Setups: Some spit roasters offer multi-spit configurations, allowing the cooking of multiple items simultaneously. This versatility enables chefs to experiment with different meats, vegetables, or even whole rotisserie chickens.
    4. Easy Cleaning and Maintenance: Many modern spit roasters feature removable components and non-stick surfaces, making cleaning and maintenance a breeze. This convenience ensures that the joy of cooking isn't dampened by the hassle of post-cooking cleanup.

    Fuel Sources: From Wood to Charcoal and Beyond

    Dive into the World of Fuel Sources for Spit Roasting:

    When it comes to spit roasting, the choice of fuel source plays a crucial role in the flavour, aroma, and overall cooking experience. Let's explore the different fuel sources commonly used in spit roasting:

    1. Wood: Wood has been a traditional fuel source for spit roasting since ancient times. Hardwoods like oak, hickory, applewood, and mesquite are popular choices due to their aromatic smoke and long-burning properties. Each wood imparts a unique flavour profile to the meat, influencing the final taste of the dish.
    2. Charcoal: Charcoal, derived from partially burned wood, has become a staple fuel source in modern spit roasting. It offers consistent heat and a clean-burning fire, allowing for precise temperature control. Lump charcoal and briquettes are two common forms of charcoal used in spit roasting, each with its own characteristics.

      Spit Roaster | Close up view of red hot charcoal in chimney ready to put into spit

    3. Gas: Gas-powered spit roasters provide convenience and quick ignition. Propane or natural gas burners offer instant heat and consistent temperature, making them a popular choice for those seeking ease of use and efficient cooking.
    4. Pellets: Wood pellets, made from compressed sawdust, provide a convenient and flavour-packed fuel source for spit roasting. Pellet grills and spit roasters utilize these pellets, which come in various wood flavours, allowing for precise temperature control, and imparting unique smoky flavours.

      Close up view of wood pellets for spit roasters and smoking

    5. Other Alternatives: Beyond wood, charcoal, and gas, other fuel sources like coconut shells, olive pits, or even specialized fuels like ethanol-based gel can be used for spit roasting. These alternatives offer distinct flavours and characteristics that can enhance the cooking experience.

    Unique Flavours and Characteristics Imparted by Different Fuel Choices:

    The fuel source used in spit roasting significantly impacts the final taste and aroma of the cooked meat. Here are some characteristics and flavours associated with different fuel choices:

    1. Wood: Wood fuels produce aromatic smoke that infuses the meat with distinct flavours. Oak lends a robust and smoky flavour, hickory imparts a strong and bacon-like taste, Applewood offers a slightly sweet and fruity essence, while mesquite delivers a bold and earthy profile.
    2. Charcoal: Charcoal provides a clean and consistent heat source, allowing the natural flavours of the meat to shine through. Lump charcoal adds a smoky taste, while briquettes offer a more neutral flavour profile.
    3. Gas: Gas fuels, such as propane or natural gas, burn cleanly and provide a reliable heat source. While they don't contribute direct flavour like wood or charcoal, they allow the natural flavours of the meat to be highlighted.
    4. Pellets: Wood pellets offer a wide range of flavours, including mesquite, hickory, cherry, and more. These pellets produce a subtle and distinct smokiness that can be customised to suit personal preferences.
    5. Other Alternatives: Alternative fuels can bring unique flavours to the table. Coconut shell fuels infuse a tropical and slightly sweet aroma, while olive pit fuels add a delicate and fruity note. Ethanol-based gel fuels provide a clean and odourless burn, allowing the natural flavours of the meat to shine.

    Factors to Consider When Selecting the Ideal Fuel for Spit Roasting:

    When choosing the ideal fuel for your spit roasting adventures, consider the following factors:

    1. Flavour Preferences: Consider the flavour profiles you desire in the finished dish and select a fuel that complements those flavours. Experimenting with different fuels can provide exciting taste variations.
    2. Heat Control and Efficiency: Evaluate the heat control capabilities of different fuel sources. Some fuels, like gas, offer precise temperature control, while others require more attention to maintain consistent heat levels.
    3. Availability and Convenience: Assess the availability and accessibility of the fuel sources in your area. Consider the ease of acquiring and storing the fuel, as well as the convenience of ignition and maintenance.
    4. Cooking Time: Different fuels burn at different rates, affecting the cooking time. Some fuels provide longer burn times, while others may require more frequent replenishment.
    5. Environmental Considerations: Consider the environmental impact of the fuel source. Choose sustainable options and consider factors like emissions, waste generation, and renewable resources.

    Types of Spit Roasters: A Glimpse into Versatility and Specialisation

    Explore the Diverse Array of Spit Roasters Available in Today's Market:

    In today's market, there is a wide range of spit roasters catering to different cooking preferences and requirements. Let's explore some of the most common types:

    1. Rotisserie Spits: Rotisserie spits are a classic and versatile type of spit roaster. They typically consist of a long metal rod or spit on which the meat is skewered and rotated slowly over a heat source. Rotisserie spits can be powered by hand-cranked mechanisms, electric motors, or gas-powered rotisserie systems.

      Spit Roaster | Cooking 4 chickens in a multi use basket on the Master Spit Roaster

    2. Multi-Spit Roaster Setups: Multi-spit setups allow for simultaneous cooking of multiple items on separate spits. These setups are ideal for larger gatherings or when cooking a variety of meats or vegetables. They provide flexibility and efficiency by accommodating different cooking times and preferences.
    3. Vertical Spit Roasters: Vertical roasters, also known as "gyro" or "shawarma" spits, are designed to cook vertically stacked meats, such as marinated chicken or lamb. The meat rotates on a vertical spit, allowing it to cook evenly and develop delicious flavours. Vertical roasters are often gas-powered and are commonly used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines.

      Spit Roaster | Cooking kebab meat on an Upright Spit Roaster

    4. Combination Grills: Some spit roasters come in combination with grilling features, providing the flexibility to switch between traditional grilling and rotisserie cooking. These combination grills allow for versatility in cooking techniques and cater to different culinary preferences.
    5. Custom and Specialty Spit Roasters: There are also custom-built spit roasters and specialty designs tailored to specific cooking needs. These may include oversized spits for whole animals, adjustable height systems for precise temperature control, or even automated rotisserie setups with advanced features for professional chefs or dedicated enthusiasts.

    Unveil the Unique Features and Functionalities of Each Type:

    Each type of spit roaster offers unique features and functionalities that cater to specific cooking styles and requirements:

    1. Rotisserie Spits: Rotisserie spits provide versatility in terms of the size and type of meat that can be cooked. They offer control over rotation speed, allowing for even browning and tenderizing of the meat. Some models come with adjustable heights, allowing you to vary the distance between the heat source and the meat.
    2. Multi-Spit Setups: Multi-spit setups enable simultaneous cooking of different meats or items, accommodating varying cooking times and preferences. They provide the flexibility to mix and match flavours and cater to the tastes of different guests.
    3. Vertical Spit Roasters: Vertical roasters offer the ability to cook vertically stacked meats, resulting in tender and flavourful dishes. They are designed for specific cuts of meat and are often equipped with features such as adjustable burners, drip pans, and meat clamps to ensure optimal cooking and easy carving.
    4. Combination Grills: Combination grills provide the best of both worlds, allowing for traditional grilling and rotisserie cooking in a single unit. They offer the flexibility to switch between direct heat grilling and indirect heat rotisserie cooking, accommodating various recipes and cooking preferences.

    Discover the Specific Cooking Techniques and Recipes that Shine with Different Spit Roaster Styles:

    Different spit roaster styles lend themselves to specific cooking techniques and recipes:

    1. Rotisserie Spits: Rotisserie spits excel at cooking large cuts of meat, such as whole chickens, pigs, roasts, or racks of ribs. They are also perfect for slow-cooking tougher cuts, allowing the meat to become tender and juicy. Spit-roasted vegetables, like whole onions or corn on the cob, can also be prepared on rotisserie spits.
    2. Multi-Spit Roaster Setups: Multi-spit setups offer the opportunity to showcase a variety of flavours. They are ideal for preparing mixed grills with different meats, kebabs, or even whole animals like pigs or lambs for festive occasions.
    3. Vertical Spit Roasters: Vertical roasters are exceptional for cooking marinated and stacked meats, such as shawarma or gyro-style dishes. The vertical rotation allows the meat to baste itself, resulting in juicy and aromatic preparations.
    4. Combination Grills: Combination grills offer the flexibility to experiment with various cooking techniques. Grilling traditional burgers, steaks, or vegetables directly over the heat source while having the option to switch to rotisserie cooking for whole chickens or roasts provides versatility in menu choices.

      Spit Roaster | 1200mm stainless steel Minion Spit Roaster, full view of it on white background

    How to Maintain Your Spit Rotisserie

    The three main components of every spit rotisserie are the Motor and shaft, Charcoal pan, and stainless steel body. Below we give a quick summary of how to care for and maintain each. An in-depth guide for maintaining your spit rotisseries can be found here.

    • Motor and Shaft maintenance
      Always regularly inspect the motor and shaft for damage, especially any wire damage. Call an electrician if you notice anything. Damage can include frayed wires, corrosion or excessive play in the shaft.
      Lubricate the Motor - Use a food grade safe lubricant on the shaft and bearings. If you are unsure how to do this, take it in for servicing annually or if you notice and degradation.
      Use a counterbalance if you cook often to ensure smooth cooking and less wear on the motor.
    • Charcoal Pan Care
      Always remove ash a day or two after cooking. Do not let ash sit in the charcoal pan for prolonged periods of time. Remove any residue using food grade safe cleaners. Always completely dry the pan after cleaning to avoid rust. Cover the pan with aluminium foil before cooking to prolong the stainless steel.
    • Stainless Steel Care
      always clean any burning or soot from the stainless steel. Use stainless steel cleaners and avoid abrasives on the surface. A stainless steel polish after cleaning will not only prolong the life of the pan but ensure it looks amazing for a long time.

    How to Cook a Whole Animal on a Spit Rotisserie

    There's something undeniably primal and exhilarating about the age-old tradition of roasting a whole pig on a spit. The sizzle of succulent meat over an open flame, the smoky aroma wafting through the air, and the anticipation of a sumptuous feast - it's a culinary adventure that transcends time. In this blog post, we'll take you on a journey into the art of cooking a whole pig on a spit, from the initial preparations to the final mouth watering result.

    We have an extremely in-depth guide to roasting a whole pig, with more guides to come. The guide will take you from the moment you pick up your pig, seasoning, preparing, and getting all the spit accessories attached and on the skewer. Filled with cooking tips and full ingredients, you will never need any other guide again. It also contains a full 13 minute video of the whole process (embedded just below here too) as well as short video excerpts of each step along the way. Find our How To Cook A Pig On A spit | Complete Guide here.

    Using a Hooded Spit Rotisserie as an Oven | Catering and more!

    Any spit rotisserie with a hood will make a fantastic oven. Dual fuels and charcoal only hooded spits can be used to slow cook meat. For large catering functions, or at times when you have more meat than the skewer can handle, cooking using aluminium foil trays can produce amazing results.

    In the Using a Hooded Spit as an Oven | Catering Guide we explore everything you will need to know for using such a technique, including adding smoking chips to produce smoked slow cook roasts. The guide centralises around a large catering event, where 15 kg of beef, 15 kg of pork, and 15 kg of chicken breast is coked for a function with 150 people. 

    Learn about food safety, ideal temperatures, how to control the temperature and much more in the guide!

    Using a Hooded Spit as a Charcoal Oven | Catering Guide image showing 20 kg of meat being slow cooked

    DIY Spit Roasters: Unleashing Your Inner Culinary Craftsman

    Step into the Realm of DIY Spit Roasters:

    For those with a passion for hands-on craftsmanship and a desire to personalize their spit roasting experience, DIY spit roasters offer an exciting avenue. Building your own spit roaster allows you to unleash your creativity, adapt the design to your specific needs, and take pride in the process of constructing a functional cooking apparatus.

    Learn about the Tools, Materials, and Techniques Required to Construct Your Own Spit Roaster:

    To embark on your DIY spit roaster project, you'll need some essential tools, materials, and techniques. Here's a list to get you started:

    1. Tools:
    • Drill or driver
    • Saw (circular, reciprocating, or hand saw)
    • Welding equipment (if working with metal)
    • Measuring tools (tape measure, ruler, or angle gauge)
    • Clamps
    • Screwdrivers and wrenches
    • Pliers and wire cutters
    • Safety equipment (gloves, goggles, and masks)
    1. Materials:
    • Frame: Choose a material suitable for your design, such as metal, brick, or wood.
    • Spit: Select a durable and food-safe metal rod or skewer that can withstand high temperatures.
    • Motor: Depending on your design, you may need a motor for automated rotation. Look for one that is compatible with your power source and can handle the weight of the meat.
    • Firebox or heat source: Determine the type of fuel you plan to use and design a firebox or heat source accordingly.
    • Fasteners: Nuts, bolts, screws, and other fasteners to assemble the various components securely.
    1. Techniques:
    • Welding: If working with metal, basic welding skills may be required to join the frame and other metal components securely.
    • Carpentry: If using wood for the frame or other structural elements, carpentry skills will be necessary for cutting, shaping, and assembling the pieces.
    • Electrical wiring: If incorporating a motor or other electrical components, knowledge of basic electrical wiring will be needed to ensure safe and functional connections. Always be sure to use a qualified Electrician for any wiring that is over 12 volts.
    • Design and Planning: Before starting the construction, take time to sketch out your design, considering dimensions, features, and any additional functionalities you want to incorporate.

    Get Inspired by Remarkable DIY Designs and Unleash Your Creativity:

    The realm of DIY spit roasters offers endless possibilities for creative expression. Drawing inspiration from existing designs and projects can help fuel your imagination. Explore online resources, forums, and social media platforms dedicated to DIY projects and outdoor cooking to discover remarkable DIY spit roaster designs shared by fellow enthusiasts.

    You'll find an assortment of innovative ideas, including unique frame constructions, creative motor setups, adjustable height mechanisms, and even repurposed materials. Take note of the features that resonate with you and adapt them to fit your vision. Consider incorporating personalized touches such as additional shelves, storage compartments, or custom branding to make your spit roaster truly one-of-a-kind.

    Remember, DIY spit roaster projects offer the opportunity to learn, experiment, and refine your skills. Embrace the journey and enjoy the process of creating a functional piece of culinary craftsmanship.


    As we reach the sizzling conclusion of this spit-roasting odyssey, we have unlocked the rich tapestry of flavours, techniques, and craftsmanship that surrounds this ancient culinary art. From tracing its origins in ancient civilisations to exploring modern innovations, we have embraced the crackling flames and tantalising aromas that make spit roasting a timeless cooking tradition.

    Whether you opt for a traditional rotisserie spit, venture into multi-spit setups, or unleash your inner DIY enthusiast to construct a personalised masterpiece, the world of spit roasters beckons with versatility and boundless creativity. Remember, the choice of fuel source adds its unique flair, from the smoky allure of wood to the precise control of gas or the convenience of charcoal.

    Spit Roaster | Cooking pork and veggies on the Deluxe Cyprus Spit Roaster

    So, gather around the fire, embark on epic cooking adventures, and let your taste buds dance to the tune of perfectly cooked meats, infused with the ancient secrets of spit roasting. Embrace the camaraderie that arises when we gather around the fire, sharing stories and savouring the fruits of our labour.

    With spit roasters, we pay homage to our ancestors who cooked over open flames, carrying forward their legacy in a delicious and captivating way. So, ignite your imagination, unleash your inner culinary craftsman, and let the fire of creativity guide you as you embark on your spit roasting journey.

    Remember, the perfect spit-roasted feast isn't just about the end result, it's about the joyous process, the mouth watering scents, and the shared experiences that warm our souls. So, Happy spit roasting adventurous food enthusiasts, go fourth and conquer the realm of spit roasting with a spirit as fiery as the flames themselves.

    Author Bio Image

    Allan Cooper

    Allan Cooper, a licenced electrician is an avid foodie, with experience in spit roasting, smoking meats, and kegerators. He loves the outdoor living lifestyle and shares it with his young family.

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